Changes between Version 4 and Version 5 of TracInstall


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Timestamp:
Dec 3, 2015, 4:18:22 PM (3 years ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracInstall

    v4 v5  
    1 = Trac Installation Guide for 1.0 =
     1= Trac Installation Guide for 1.0
     2
    23[[TracGuideToc]]
    34
    45Trac is written in the Python programming language and needs a database, [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], or [http://mysql.com/ MySQL]. For HTML rendering, Trac uses the [http://genshi.edgewall.org Genshi] templating system.
    56
    6 Since version 0.12, Trac can also be localized, and there's probably a translation available for your language. If you want to be able to use the Trac interface in other languages, then make sure you have installed the optional package [#OtherPythonPackages Babel]. Pay attention to the extra steps for localization support in the [#InstallingTrac Installing Trac] section below. Lacking Babel, you will only get the default english version, as usual.
    7 
    8 If you're interested in contributing new translations for other languages or enhance the existing translations, then please have a look at [[trac:TracL10N]].
    9 
    10 What follows are generic instructions for installing and setting up Trac and its requirements. While you may find instructions for installing Trac on specific systems at [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms] on the main Trac site, please be sure to '''first read through these general instructions''' to get a good understanding of the tasks involved.
     7Since version 0.12, Trac can also be localized, and there is probably a translation available in your language. If you want to use the Trac interface in other languages, then make sure you have installed the optional package [#OtherPythonPackages Babel]. Pay attention to the extra steps for localization support in the [#InstallingTrac Installing Trac] section below. Lacking Babel, you will only get the default English version.
     8
     9If you're interested in contributing new translations for other languages or enhancing the existing translations, then please have a look at [trac:wiki:TracL10N TracL10N].
     10
     11What follows are generic instructions for installing and setting up Trac. While you may find instructions for installing Trac on specific systems at [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms] on the main Trac site, please '''first read through these general instructions''' to get a good understanding of the tasks involved.
    1112
    1213[[PageOutline(2-3,Installation Steps,inline)]]
    1314
    14 == Dependencies ==
     15== Dependencies
     16
    1517=== Mandatory Dependencies
     18
    1619To install Trac, the following software packages must be installed:
    1720
    1821 * [http://www.python.org/ Python], version >= 2.5 and < 3.0
    1922   (note that we dropped the support for Python 2.4 in this release)
    20  * [http://peak.telecommunity.com/DevCenter/setuptools setuptools], version >= 0.6, or better yet, [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/distribute distribute]
    21  * [http://genshi.edgewall.org/wiki/Download Genshi], version >= 0.6 (unreleased version 0.7dev should work as well)
    22 
    23 You also need a database system and the corresponding python bindings.
    24 The database can be either SQLite, PostgreSQL or MySQL.
     23 * [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/setuptools setuptools], version >= 0.6
     24 * [http://genshi.edgewall.org/wiki/Download Genshi], version >= 0.6
     25
     26You also need a database system and the corresponding python bindings. The database can be either SQLite, PostgreSQL or MySQL.
    2527
    2628==== For the SQLite database #ForSQLite
    2729
    28 As you must be using Python 2.5, 2.6 or 2.7, you already have the SQLite database bindings bundled with the standard distribution of Python (the `sqlite3` module).
    29 
    30 However, if you'd like, you can download the latest and greatest version of [[trac:Pysqlite]] from
    31 [http://code.google.com/p/pysqlite/downloads/list google code], where you'll find the Windows
    32 installers or the `tar.gz` archive for building from source:
    33 {{{
    34 $ tar xvfz <version>.tar.gz
    35 $ cd <version>
    36 $ python setup.py build_static install
    37 }}}
    38  
    39 This will download the latest SQLite code and build the bindings.
    40 
    41 SQLite 2.x is no longer supported.
    42 
    43 A known bug PySqlite versions 2.5.2-4 prohibits upgrade of trac databases
    44 from 0.11.x to 0.12. Please use versions 2.5.5 and newer or 2.5.1 and
    45 older. See #9434 for more detail.
    46 
    47 See additional information in [trac:PySqlite PySqlite].
     30As you must be using Python 2.5, 2.6 or 2.7, you already have the SQLite database bindings bundled with the standard distribution of Python: the `sqlite3` module.
     31
     32Optionally, you may install a newer version of [pypi:pysqlite pysqlite] than the one provided by the Python distribution. See [trac:PySqlite#ThePysqlite2bindings PySqlite] for details.
    4833
    4934==== For the PostgreSQL database #ForPostgreSQL
     
    5136You need to install the database and its Python bindings:
    5237 * [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], version 8.0 or later
    53  * [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/psycopg2 psycopg2]
     38 * [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/psycopg2 psycopg2], version 2.0 or later
    5439
    5540See [trac:DatabaseBackend#Postgresql DatabaseBackend] for details.
    5641
    57 
    5842==== For the MySQL database #ForMySQL
    5943
    60 Trac can now work quite well with MySQL, provided you follow the guidelines.
    61 
    62  * [http://mysql.com/ MySQL], version 5.0 or later
     44Trac works well with MySQL, provided you follow the guidelines:
     45
     46 * [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] or [http://mariadb.org/ MariaDB], version 5.0 or later
    6347 * [http://sf.net/projects/mysql-python MySQLdb], version 1.2.2 or later
    6448
    65 It is '''very''' important to read carefully the [trac:MySqlDb] page before creating the database.
     49Given the caveats and known issues surrounding MySQL, read the [trac:MySqlDb] page before creating the database.
    6650
    6751=== Optional Dependencies
    6852
    69 ==== Version Control System ====
    70 
    71 ===== Subversion =====
    72  * [http://subversion.apache.org/ Subversion], 1.5.x or 1.6.x and the '''''corresponding''''' Python bindings. Older versions starting from 1.0, like 1.2.4, 1.3.2 or 1.4.2, etc. should still work. For troubleshooting information, check the [trac:TracSubversion#Troubleshooting TracSubversion] page.
    73 
    74 There are [http://subversion.apache.org/packages.html pre-compiled SWIG bindings] available for various platforms. (Good luck finding precompiled SWIG bindings for any Windows package at that listing. TracSubversion points you to [http://alagazam.net Algazam], which works for me under Python 2.6.)
     53==== Version Control System
     54
     55===== Subversion
     56 * [http://subversion.apache.org/ Subversion], 1.5.x or later and the '''corresponding''' Python bindings. Older versions starting from 1.0, like 1.2.4, 1.3.2 or 1.4.2, etc. may still work. For troubleshooting information, check the [trac:TracSubversion#Troubleshooting TracSubversion] page.
     57
     58There are [http://subversion.apache.org/packages.html pre-compiled SWIG bindings] available for various platforms. (Good luck finding precompiled SWIG bindings for any Windows package at that listing. [trac:TracSubversion] points you to [http://alagazam.net Alagazam], which works for me under Python 2.6.)
    7559
    7660Note that Trac '''doesn't''' use [http://pysvn.tigris.org/ PySVN], neither does it work yet with the newer `ctype`-style bindings.
    7761
    78 
    79 '''Please note:''' if using Subversion, Trac must be installed on the '''same machine'''. Remote repositories are currently [trac:ticket:493 not supported].
    80 
    81 
    82 ===== Others =====
    83 
    84 Support for other version control systems is provided via third-parties. See [trac:PluginList] and [trac:VersionControlSystem].
    85 
    86 ==== Web Server ====
    87 A web server is optional because Trac is shipped with a server included, see the [#RunningtheStandaloneServer Running the Standalone Server ] section below.
    88 
    89 Alternatively you configure Trac to run in any of the following environments.
     62'''Note:''' if using Subversion, Trac must be installed on the '''same machine'''. Remote repositories are currently [trac:ticket:493 not supported].
     63
     64===== Git
     65 * [http://git-scm.com/ Git] 1.5.6 or later.
     66
     67More information is available on the [trac:TracGit] page.
     68
     69===== Others
     70
     71Support for other version control systems is provided via third-parties. See [trac:PluginList#VersionControlSystems] and [trac:VersionControlSystem].
     72
     73==== Web Server
     74
     75A web server is optional because Trac has a server included, see the [#RunningtheStandaloneServer Running the Standalone Server] section below.
     76
     77Alternatively you can configure Trac to run in any of the following environments:
    9078 * [http://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] with
    9179   - [http://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/ mod_wsgi], see [wiki:TracModWSGI] and
    9280     http://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/wiki/IntegrationWithTrac
    93    - [http://modpython.org/ mod_python 3.3.1], deprecated: see TracModPython)
     81   - [http://modpython.org/ mod_python 3.5.0], see TracModPython
    9482 * a [http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI]-capable web server (see TracFastCgi)
    9583 * an [http://tomcat.apache.org/connectors-doc/ajp/ajpv13a.html AJP]-capable web
    9684   server (see [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp TracOnWindowsIisAjp])
    97  * a CGI-capable web server (see TracCgi), '''but usage of Trac as a cgi script
    98    is highly discouraged''', better use one of the previous options.
     85 * a FastCGI and FastCGI-to-WSGI gateway (see [trac:TracOnWindowsIisWfastcgi])
     86 * a CGI-capable web server (see TracCgi), but //usage of Trac as a cgi script
     87   is highly discouraged//, better use one of the previous options.
    9988   
    100 
    101 ==== Other Python Packages ====
    102 
    103  * [http://babel.edgewall.org Babel], version >= 0.9.5,
    104    needed for localization support (unreleased version 1.0dev should work as well)
     89==== Other Python Packages
     90
     91 * [http://babel.edgewall.org Babel], version 0.9.5, 0.9.6 or >= 1.3
     92   needed for localization support
    10593 * [http://docutils.sourceforge.net/ docutils], version >= 0.3.9
    10694   for WikiRestructuredText.
    107  * [http://pygments.pocoo.org Pygments] for
    108    [wiki:TracSyntaxColoring syntax highlighting].
     95 * [http://pygments.org Pygments] for
     96   [TracSyntaxColoring syntax highlighting].
    10997   [http://silvercity.sourceforge.net/ SilverCity] and/or
    11098   [http://gnu.org/software/enscript/enscript.html Enscript] may still be used
     
    114102   an internal time zone implementation.
    115103
    116 '''Attention''': The various available versions of these dependencies are not necessarily interchangable, so please pay attention to the version numbers above. If you are having trouble getting Trac to work please double-check all the dependencies before asking for help on the [trac:MailingList] or [trac:IrcChannel].
    117 
    118 Please refer to the documentation of these packages to find out how they are best installed. In addition, most of the [trac:TracInstallPlatforms platform-specific instructions] also describe the installation of the dependencies. Keep in mind however that the information there ''probably concern older versions of Trac than the one you're installing'' (there are even some pages that are still talking about Trac 0.8!).
    119 
    120 
    121 == Installing Trac ==
     104{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     105**Attention**: The available versions of these dependencies are not necessarily interchangeable, so please pay attention to the version numbers. If you are having trouble getting Trac to work, please double-check all the dependencies before asking for help on the [trac:MailingList] or [trac:IrcChannel].
     106}}}
     107
     108Please refer to the documentation of these packages to find out how they are best installed. In addition, most of the [trac:TracInstallPlatforms platform-specific instructions] also describe the installation of the dependencies. Keep in mind however that the information there probably concern older versions of Trac than the one you're installing.
     109
     110== Installing Trac
     111
     112The [TracAdmin trac-admin] command-line tool, used to create and maintain [TracEnvironment project environments], as well as the [TracStandalone tracd] standalone server are installed along with Trac. There are several methods for installing Trac.
     113
    122114=== Using `easy_install`
    123 One way to install Trac is using [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/setuptools setuptools].
    124 With setuptools you can install Trac from the subversion repository;
    125 
    126 A few examples:
    127 
    128  - install Trac 1.0:
    129    {{{
    130    easy_install Trac==1.0
    131    }}}
    132    (NOT YET ENABLED)
    133  - install latest development version 1.0dev:
    134    {{{
    135    easy_install Trac==dev
    136    }}}
     115
     116Trac can be installed from [https://pypi.python.org/pypi/Trac PyPI] or the Subversion repository using [pypi:setuptools setuptools].
     117
     118A few command-line examples:
     119
     120 - Install Trac 1.0:
     121 {{{#!sh
     122$ easy_install Trac==1.0
     123}}}
     124 - Install latest development version:
     125 {{{#!sh
     126$ easy_install Trac==dev
     127}}}
    137128   Note that in this case you won't have the possibility to run a localized version of Trac;
    138    either use a released version or install from source
     129   either use a released version or install from source.
     130
     131More information can be found on the [trac:setuptools] page.
     132
     133{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     134**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation. More information may be found in the sections on [#RunningtheStandaloneServer Running The Standalone Server] and [#RunningTraconaWebServer Running Trac on a Web Server].
     135}}}
    139136
    140137=== Using `pip`
    141 'pip' is an easy_install replacement that is very useful to quickly install python packages.
    142 To get a trac installation up and running in less than 5 minutes:
    143 
    144 Assuming you want to have your entire pip installation in `/opt/user/trac`
     138
     139'pip' is an easy_install replacement that is very useful to quickly install Python packages.
     140To get a Trac installation up and running in less than 5 minutes:
     141
     142Assuming you want to have your entire pip installation in `/opt/user/trac`:
    145143
    146144 -
    147 {{{
    148 pip -E /opt/user/trac install trac psycopg2
    149 }}}
    150 or
     145 {{{#!sh
     146$ pip install trac psycopg2
     147}}}
     148or:
    151149 -
    152 {{{
    153 pip -E /opt/user/trac install trac mysql-python
    154 }}}
    155 
    156 Make sure your OS specific headers are available for pip to automatically build PostgreSQL (libpq-dev) or MySQL (libmysqlclient-dev) bindings.
    157 
    158 pip will automatically resolve all dependencies (like Genshi, pygments, etc.) and download the latest packages on pypi.python.org and create a self contained installation in `/opt/user/trac`.
    159 
    160 All commands (`tracd`, `trac-admin`) are available in `/opt/user/trac/bin`. This can also be leveraged for `mod_python` (using `PythonHandler` directive) and `mod_wsgi` (using `WSGIDaemonProcess` directive)
    161 
    162 Additionally, you can install several trac plugins (listed [http://pypi.python.org/pypi?:action=search&term=trac&submit=search here]) through pip.
    163 
    164 
     150 {{{#!sh
     151$ pip install trac mysql-python
     152}}}
     153
     154Make sure your OS specific headers are available for pip to automatically build PostgreSQL (`libpq-dev`) or MySQL (`libmysqlclient-dev`) bindings.
     155
     156pip will automatically resolve all dependencies (like Genshi, pygments, etc.), download the latest packages from pypi.python.org and create a self contained installation in `/opt/user/trac`.
     157
     158All commands (`tracd`, `trac-admin`) are available in `/opt/user/trac/bin`. This can also be leveraged for `mod_python` (using `PythonHandler` directive) and `mod_wsgi` (using `WSGIDaemonProcess` directive).
     159
     160Additionally, you can install several Trac plugins (listed [https://pypi.python.org/pypi?:action=browse&show=all&c=516 here]) through pip.
    165161
    166162=== From source
    167 Of course, using the python-typical setup at the top of the source directory also works.
    168 
    169 You can obtain the source for a .tar.gz or .zip file corresponding to a release (e.g. Trac-1.0.tar.gz), or you can get the source directly from the repository (see Trac:SubversionRepository for details).
    170 
    171 {{{
     163
     164Using the python-typical setup at the top of the source directory also works. You can obtain the source for a .tar.gz or .zip file corresponding to a release (e.g. `Trac-1.0.tar.gz`) from the [trac:TracDownload] page, or you can get the source directly from the repository. See [trac:TracRepositories#OfficialSubversionrepository TracRepositories] for details.
     165
     166{{{#!sh
    172167$ python ./setup.py install
    173168}}}
    174169
    175 ''You'll need root permissions or equivalent for this step.''
    176 
    177 This will byte-compile the python source code and install it as an .egg file or folder in the `site-packages` directory
    178 of your Python installation. The .egg will also contain all other resources needed by standard Trac, such as htdocs and templates.
    179 
    180 The script will also install the [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin] command-line tool, used to create and maintain [wiki:TracEnvironment project environments], as well as the [wiki:TracStandalone tracd] standalone server.
    181 
    182 If you install from source and want to make Trac available in other languages, make sure  Babel is installed. Only then, perform the `install` (or simply redo the `install` once again afterwards if you realize Babel was not yet installed):
    183 {{{
     170You will need root permissions or equivalent for this step.
     171
     172This will byte-compile the Python source code and install it as an .egg file or folder in the `site-packages` directory
     173of your Python installation. The .egg will also contain all other resources needed by standard Trac, such as `htdocs` and `templates`.
     174
     175If you install from source and want to make Trac available in other languages, make sure Babel is installed. Only then, perform the `install` (or simply redo the `install` once again afterwards if you realize Babel was not yet installed):
     176{{{#!sh
    184177$ python ./setup.py install
    185178}}}
    186 Alternatively, you can do a `bdist_egg` and copy the .egg from dist/ to the place of your choice, or you can create a Windows installer (`bdist_wininst`).
    187 
    188 === Advanced Options ===
     179
     180Alternatively, you can run `bdist_egg` and copy the .egg from `dist/` to the place of your choice, or you can create a Windows installer (`bdist_wininst`).
     181
     182=== Using installer
     183
     184On Windows Trac can be installed using the exe installers available on the [trac:TracDownload] page. Installers are available for the 32 and 64 bit versions of Python. Make sure to use the installer that matches the architecture of your Python installation.
     185
     186=== Using package manager
     187
     188Trac may be available in the package repository for your platform. Note however, that the version provided by the package manager may not be the latest release.
     189
     190=== Advanced `easy_install` Options
    189191
    190192To install Trac to a custom location, or find out about other advanced installation options, run:
    191 {{{
    192 easy_install --help
    193 }}}
    194 
    195 Also see [http://docs.python.org/inst/inst.html Installing Python Modules] for detailed information.
     193{{{#!sh
     194$ easy_install --help
     195}}}
     196
     197Also see [http://docs.python.org/2/install/index.html Installing Python Modules] for detailed information.
    196198
    197199Specifically, you might be interested in:
    198 {{{
    199 easy_install --prefix=/path/to/installdir
    200 }}}
    201 or, if installing Trac to a Mac OS X system:
    202 {{{
    203 easy_install --prefix=/usr/local --install-dir=/Library/Python/2.5/site-packages
    204 }}}
    205 Note: If installing on Mac OS X 10.6 running {{{ easy_install http://svn.edgewall.org/repos/trac/trunk }}} will install into {{{ /usr/local }}} and {{{ /Library/Python/2.6/site-packages }}} by default
     200{{{#!sh
     201$ easy_install --prefix=/path/to/installdir
     202}}}
     203
     204or, if installing Trac on a Mac OS X system:
     205{{{#!sh
     206$ easy_install --prefix=/usr/local --install-dir=/Library/Python/2.5/site-packages
     207}}}
     208
     209'''Note''': If installing on Mac OS X 10.6 running {{{ easy_install http://svn.edgewall.org/repos/trac/trunk }}} will install into {{{ /usr/local }}} and {{{ /Library/Python/2.5/site-packages }}} by default.
    206210
    207211The above will place your `tracd` and `trac-admin` commands into `/usr/local/bin` and will install the Trac libraries and dependencies into `/Library/Python/2.5/site-packages`, which is Apple's preferred location for third-party Python application installations.
    208212
    209 
    210 == Creating a Project Environment ==
    211 
    212 A [TracEnvironment Trac environment] is the backend storage where Trac stores information like wiki pages, tickets, reports, settings, etc. An environment is basically a directory that contains a human-readable [TracIni configuration file], and various other files and directories.
    213 
    214 A new environment is created using [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin]:
    215 {{{
     213== Creating a Project Environment
     214
     215A [TracEnvironment Trac environment] is the backend where Trac stores information like wiki pages, tickets, reports, settings, etc. An environment is basically a directory that contains a human-readable [TracIni configuration file], and other files and directories.
     216
     217A new environment is created using [TracAdmin trac-admin]:
     218{{{#!sh
    216219$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
    217220}}}
     
    220223
    221224Using the default database connection string in particular will always work as long as you have SQLite installed.
    222 For the other [DatabaseBackend database backends] you should plan ahead and already have a database ready to use at this point.
    223 
    224 Since 0.12, Trac doesn't ask for a [TracEnvironment#SourceCodeRepository source code repository] anymore when creating an environment. Repositories can be [TracRepositoryAdmin added] afterward, or the version control support can be disabled completely if you don't need it.
     225For the other [trac:DatabaseBackend database backends] you should plan ahead and already have a database ready to use at this point.
     226
     227Since 0.12, Trac doesn't ask for a [TracEnvironment#SourceCodeRepository source code repository] anymore when creating an environment. Repositories can be [TracRepositoryAdmin added] afterwards, and support for specific version control systems is disabled by default.
    225228
    226229Also note that the values you specify here can be changed later by directly editing the [TracIni conf/trac.ini] configuration file.
    227230
     231{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     232**Filesystem Warning:** When selecting the location of your environment, make sure that the filesystem on which the environment directory resides supports sub-second timestamps (i.e. **not** `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux, or HFS+ on OSX), as the modification time of the `conf/trac.ini` file will be monitored to decide whether an environment restart is needed or not. A too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may result in inconsistencies in Trac < 1.0.2. The best advice is to opt for a platform with sub-second timestamp resolution, regardless of the Trac version.
     233}}}
     234
    228235Finally, make sure the user account under which the web front-end runs will have '''write permissions''' to the environment directory and all the files inside. This will be the case if you run `trac-admin ... initenv` as this user. If not, you should set the correct user afterwards. For example on Linux, with the web server running as user `apache` and group `apache`, enter:
    229 {{{
    230 # chown -R apache.apache /path/to/myproject
    231 }}}
     236{{{#!sh
     237$ chown -R apache.apache /path/to/myproject
     238}}}
     239
     240The actual username and groupname of the Apache server may not be exactly `apache`, and are specified in the Apache configuration file by the directives `User` and `Group` (if Apache `httpd` is what you use).
    232241
    233242{{{#!div class=important
     
    235244}}}
    236245
    237 
    238246== Deploying Trac
    239247
    240 === Running the Standalone Server ===
    241 
    242 After having created a Trac environment, you can easily try the web interface by running the standalone server [wiki:TracStandalone tracd]:
    243 {{{
     248=== Running the Standalone Server
     249
     250After having created a Trac environment, you can easily try the web interface by running the standalone server [TracStandalone tracd]:
     251{{{#!sh
    244252$ tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
    245253}}}
    246254
    247255Then, fire up a browser and visit `http://localhost:8000/`. You should get a simple listing of all environments that `tracd` knows about. Follow the link to the environment you just created, and you should see Trac in action. If you only plan on managing a single project with Trac you can have the standalone server skip the environment list by starting it like this:
    248 {{{
     256{{{#!sh
    249257$ tracd -s --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
    250258}}}
    251259
    252 === Running Trac on a Web Server ===
     260{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     261**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation. The environment variable can be set system-wide, or for just the user that runs the `tracd` process. There are several ways to accomplish this in addition to what is discussed here, and depending on the distribution of your OS.
     262
     263To be effective system-wide a shell script with the `export` statement may be added to `/etc/profile.d`. To be effective for a user session the `export` statement may be added to `~/.profile`.
     264{{{#!sh
     265export PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS=1
     266}}}
     267
     268Alternatively, the variable can be set in the shell before executing `tracd`:
     269{{{#!sh
     270$ PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS=1 tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     271}}}
     272}}}
     273
     274=== Running Trac on a Web Server
    253275
    254276Trac provides various options for connecting to a "real" web server:
    255  - [wiki:TracFastCgi FastCGI]
     277 - [TracFastCgi FastCGI]
    256278 - [wiki:TracModWSGI mod_wsgi]
    257  - //[wiki:TracModPython mod_python] (no longer recommended, as mod_python is not actively maintained anymore)//
    258  - //[wiki:TracCgi CGI] (should not be used, as the performance is far from optimal)//
     279 - [TracModPython mod_python]
     280 - //[TracCgi CGI]: should not be used, as it degrades performance//
    259281
    260282Trac also supports [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP] which may be your choice if you want to connect to IIS. Other deployment scenarios are possible: [trac:TracNginxRecipe nginx], [http://projects.unbit.it/uwsgi/wiki/Example#Traconapacheinasub-uri uwsgi], [trac:TracOnWindowsIisIsapi Isapi-wsgi] etc.
    261283
    262 ==== Generating the Trac cgi-bin directory ==== #cgi-bin
    263 
    264 In order for Trac to function properly with FastCGI you need to have a `trac.fcgi` file and for mod_wsgi a `trac.wsgi` file. These are Python scripts which load the appropriate Python code. They can be generated using the `deploy` option of [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin].
    265 
    266 There is, however, a bit of a chicken-and-egg problem. The [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin] command requires an existing environment to function, but complains if the deploy directory already exists. This is a problem, because environments are often stored in a subdirectory of the deploy. The solution is to do something like this:
    267 {{{
    268 mkdir -p /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project
    269 trac-admin /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project initenv
    270 trac-admin /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project deploy /tmp/deploy
    271 mv /tmp/deploy/* /usr/share/trac
    272 }}}
    273 
    274 
    275 ==== Mapping Static Resources ====
    276 
    277 Out of the box, Trac will pass static resources such as style sheets or images through itself. For anything but a tracd only based deployment, this is far from optimal as the web server could be set up to directly serve those static resources (for CGI setup, this is '''highly undesirable''' and will cause abysmal performance).
    278 
    279 Web servers such as [http://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] allow you to create “Aliases” to resources, giving them a virtual URL that doesn't necessarily reflect the layout of the servers file system. We also can map requests for static resources directly to the directory on the file system, avoiding processing these requests by Trac itself.
     284==== Generating the Trac cgi-bin directory #cgi-bin
     285
     286In order for Trac to function properly with FastCGI you need to have a `trac.fcgi` file and for mod_wsgi a `trac.wsgi` file. These are Python scripts which load the appropriate Python code. They can be generated using the `deploy` option of [TracAdmin trac-admin].
     287
     288There is, however, a bit of a chicken-and-egg problem. The [TracAdmin trac-admin] command requires an existing environment to function, but complains if the deploy directory already exists. This is a problem, because environments are often stored in a subdirectory of the deploy. The solution is to do something like this:
     289{{{#!sh
     290$ mkdir -p /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project
     291$ trac-admin /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project initenv
     292$ trac-admin /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project deploy /tmp/deploy
     293$ mv /tmp/deploy/* /usr/share/trac
     294}}}
     295
     296Don't forget to check that the web server has the execution right on scripts in the `/usr/share/trac/cgi-bin` directory.
     297
     298==== Mapping Static Resources
     299
     300Out of the box, Trac will pass static resources such as style sheets or images through itself. For anything but a tracd only based deployment, this is far from optimal as the web server could be set up to directly serve those static resources. For CGI setup, this is '''highly undesirable''' as it causes abysmal performance.
     301
     302Web servers such as [http://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] allow you to create "Aliases" to resources, giving them a virtual URL that doesn't necessarily reflect the layout of the servers file system. We also can map requests for static resources directly to the directory on the file system, avoiding processing these requests by Trac itself.
    280303
    281304There are two primary URL paths for static resources - `/chrome/common` and `/chrome/site`. Plugins can add their own resources, usually accessible by `/chrome/<plugin>` path, so its important to override only known paths and not try to make universal `/chrome` alias for everything.
     
    289312 - `<plugins>/` - one directory for each resource directory managed by the plugins enabled for this environment
    290313
    291 ===== Example: Apache and `ScriptAlias` ===== #ScriptAlias-example
     314===== Example: Apache and `ScriptAlias` #ScriptAlias-example
    292315
    293316Assuming the deployment has been done this way:
    294 {{{
    295 $ trac-admin /var/trac/env deploy /path/to/trac/htdocs/common
     317{{{#!sh
     318$ trac-admin /var/trac/env deploy /path/to/shared/trac
    296319}}}
    297320
    298321Add the following snippet to Apache configuration ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` (which map all the other requests to the Trac application), changing paths to match your deployment:
    299 {{{
     322{{{#!apache
    300323Alias /trac/chrome/common /path/to/trac/htdocs/common
    301324Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/trac/htdocs/site
     
    307330}}}
    308331
    309 If using mod_python, you might want to add this too (otherwise, the alias will be ignored):
    310 {{{
     332If using mod_python, you might want to add this too, otherwise the alias will be ignored:
     333{{{#!apache
    311334<Location "/trac/chrome/common/">
    312335  SetHandler None
     
    317340
    318341Similarly, if you have static resources in a project's `htdocs` directory (which is referenced by `/trac/chrome/site` URL in themes), you can configure Apache to serve those resources (again, put this ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` for the .*cgi scripts, and adjust names and locations to match your installation):
    319 {{{
     342{{{#!apache
    320343Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/projectenv/htdocs
    321344
     
    326349}}}
    327350
    328 Alternatively to aliasing `/trac/chrome/common`, you can tell Trac to generate direct links for those static resources (and only those), using the [[wiki:TracIni#trac-section| [trac] htdocs_location]] configuration setting:
    329 {{{
     351Alternatively to aliasing `/trac/chrome/common`, you can tell Trac to generate direct links for those static resources (and only those), using the [[TracIni#trac-section| [trac] htdocs_location]] configuration setting:
     352{{{#!ini
    330353[trac]
    331354htdocs_location = http://static.example.org/trac-common/
    332355}}}
    333 Note that this makes it easy to have a dedicated domain serve those static resources (preferentially [http://code.google.com/speed/page-speed/docs/request.html#ServeFromCookielessDomain cookie-less]).
     356
     357Note that this makes it easy to have a dedicated domain serve those static resources, preferentially [http://code.google.com/speed/page-speed/docs/request.html#ServeFromCookielessDomain cookie-less].
    334358
    335359Of course, you still need to make the Trac `htdocs/common` directory available through the web server at the specified URL, for example by copying (or linking) the directory into the document root of the web server:
    336 {{{
     360{{{#!sh
    337361$ ln -s /path/to/trac/htdocs/common /var/www/static.example.org/trac-common
    338362}}}
    339363
    340 
    341 ==== Setting up the Plugin Cache ====
    342 
    343 Some Python plugins need to be extracted to a cache directory. By default the cache resides in the home directory of the current user. When running Trac on a Web Server as a dedicated user (which is highly recommended) who has no home directory, this might prevent the plugins from starting. To override the cache location you can set the PYTHON_EGG_CACHE environment variable. Refer to your server documentation for detailed instructions on how to set environment variables.
    344 
    345 == Configuring Authentication ==
    346 
    347 Trac uses HTTP authentication. You'll need to configure your webserver to request authentication when the `.../login` URL is hit (the virtual path of the "login" button). Trac will automatically pick the REMOTE_USER variable up after you provide your credentials. Therefore, all user management goes through your web server configuration. Please consult the documentation of your web server for more info.
     364==== Setting up the Plugin Cache
     365
     366Some Python plugins need to be extracted to a cache directory. By default the cache resides in the home directory of the current user. When running Trac on a Web Server as a dedicated user (which is highly recommended) who has no home directory, this might prevent the plugins from starting. To override the cache location you can set the `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` environment variable. Refer to your server documentation for detailed instructions on how to set environment variables.
     367
     368== Configuring Authentication
     369
     370Trac uses HTTP authentication. You'll need to configure your webserver to request authentication when the `.../login` URL is hit (the virtual path of the "login" button). Trac will automatically pick the `REMOTE_USER` variable up after you provide your credentials. Therefore, all user management goes through your web server configuration. Please consult the documentation of your web server for more info.
    348371
    349372The process of adding, removing, and configuring user accounts for authentication depends on the specific way you run Trac.
     
    352375 * TracStandalone#UsingAuthentication if you use the standalone server, `tracd`.
    353376 * [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] if you use the Apache web server, with any of its front end: `mod_wsgi` of course, but the same instructions applies also for `mod_python`, `mod_fcgi` or `mod_fastcgi`.
    354  * TracFastCgi if you're using another web server with FCGI support (Cherokee, Lighttpd, !LiteSpeed, nginx)
     377 * TracFastCgi if you are using another web server with FCGI support, such as Cherokee, Lighttpd, !LiteSpeed, nginx.
     378
     379The following document also contains some useful information for beginners: [trac:TracAuthenticationIntroduction].
    355380
    356381== Granting admin rights to the admin user
     382
    357383Grant admin rights to user admin:
    358 {{{
     384{{{#!sh
    359385$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject permission add admin TRAC_ADMIN
    360386}}}
    361 This user will have an "Admin" entry menu that will allow you to admin your trac project.
     387
     388This user will have an "Admin" entry menu that will allow you to administrate your Trac project.
    362389
    363390== Finishing the install
    364391
    365 === Automatic reference to the SVN changesets in Trac tickets ===
    366 
    367 You can configure SVN to automatically add a reference to the changeset into the ticket comments, whenever changes are committed to the repository. The description of the commit needs to contain one of the following formulas:
    368  * '''`Refs #123`''' - to reference this changeset in `#123` ticket
    369  * '''`Fixes #123`''' - to reference this changeset and close `#123` ticket with the default status ''fixed''
    370 
    371 This functionality requires a post-commit hook to be installed as described in [wiki:TracRepositoryAdmin#ExplicitSync TracRepositoryAdmin], and enabling the optional commit updater components by adding the following line to the `[components]` section of your [wiki:TracIni#components-section trac.ini], or enabling the components in the "Plugins" admin panel.
    372 {{{
    373 tracopt.ticket.commit_updater.* = enabled
    374 }}}
    375 For more information, see the documentation of the `CommitTicketUpdater` component in the "Plugins" admin panel.
    376 
    377 === Using Trac ===
     392=== Enable version control components
     393
     394Support for version control systems is provided by optional components in Trac and the components are disabled by default //(since 1.0)//. Subversion and Git must be explicitly enabled if you wish to use them. See TracRepositoryAdmin for more details.
     395
     396The version control systems are enabled by adding the following to the `[components]` section of your [TracIni#components-section trac.ini], or enabling the components in the "Plugins" admin panel:
     397
     398{{{#!ini
     399[components]
     400tracopt.versioncontrol.svn.* = enabled
     401}}}
     402
     403{{{#!ini
     404[components]
     405tracopt.versioncontrol.git.* = enabled
     406}}}
     407
     408After enabling the components, repositories can be configured through the //Repositories// admin panel or by editing [TracIni#repositories-section trac.ini]. Automatic changeset references can be inserted as ticket comments by configuring [TracRepositoryAdmin#Automaticchangesetreferencesintickets CommitTicketUpdater].
     409
     410=== Using Trac
    378411
    379412Once you have your Trac site up and running, you should be able to create tickets, view the timeline, browse your version control repository if configured, etc.
    380413
    381 Keep in mind that //anonymous// (not logged in) users can by default access only a few of the features, in particular they will have a read-only access to the resources. You will need to configure authentication and grant additional [wiki:TracPermissions permissions] to authenticated users to see the full set of features.
     414Keep in mind that //anonymous// (not logged in) users can by default access only a few of the features, in particular they will have a read-only access to the resources. You will need to configure authentication and grant additional [TracPermissions permissions] to authenticated users to see the full set of features.
    382415
    383416'' Enjoy! ''